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Security tuning

BunkerWeb offers many security features that you can configure with settings. Even if the default values of settings ensure a minimal "security by default", we strongly recommend you tune them. By doing so you will be able to ensure the security level of your choice but also manage false positives.

Other settings

This section only focuses on security tuning, see the settings section of the documentation for other settings.

Overview

Overview and order of the core security plugins

HTTP protocol

Deny status code

STREAM support ⚠

The first thing to define is the kind of action to do when a client access is denied. You can control the action with the DENY_HTTP_STATUS setting which allows the following values :

  • 403 : send a "classical" Forbidden HTTP status code (a web page or custom content will be displayed)
  • 444 : close the connection (no web page or custom content will be displayed)

The default value is 403 and we suggest you set it to 444 only if you already fixed a lot of false positive, you are familiar with BunkerWeb and want a higher level of security.

When using stream mode, value is ignored and always set to 444 with effect of closing the connection.

Default server

STREAM support ❌

In the HTTP protocol, the Host header is used to determine which server the client wants to send the request to. That header is facultative and may be missing from the request or can be set as an unknown value. This is a common case, a lot of bots are scanning the Internet and are trying to exploit services or simply doing some fingerprinting.

You can disable any request containing undefined or unknown Host value by setting DISABLE_DEFAULT_SERVER to yes (default : no). Please note that clients won't even receive a response, the TCP connection will be closed (using the special 444 status code of NGINX).

Allowed methods

STREAM support ❌

You can control the allowed HTTP methods by listing them (separated with "|") in the ALLOWED_METHODS setting (default : GET|POST|HEAD). Clients sending a method which is not listed will get a "405 - Method Not Allowed".

Max sizes

STREAM support ❌

You can control the maximum body size with the MAX_CLIENT_SIZE setting (default : 10m). See here for accepted values. You can use the special value 0 to allow a body of infinite size (not recommended).

Serve files

STREAM support ❌

To disable serving files from the www folder, you can set SERVE_FILES to no (default : yes). The value no is recommended if you use BunkerWeb as a reverse proxy.

Headers

STREAM support ❌

Headers are very important when it comes to HTTP security. While some of them might be too verbose, others' verbosity will need to be increased, especially on the client-side.

Remove headers

STREAM support ❌

You can automatically remove verbose headers in the HTTP responses by using the REMOVE_HEADERS setting (default : Server X-Powered-By X-AspNet-Version X-AspNetMvc-Version).

Keep upstream headers

STREAM support ❌

You can automatically keep headers from upstream servers and prevent BunkerWeb from overriding them in the HTTP responses by using the KEEP_UPSTREAM_HEADERS setting (default : Content-Security-Policy Permissions-Policy Feature-Policy X-Frame-Options). A special value * is available to keep all headers. List of headers to keep must be separated with a space. Note that if the header is not present in the upstream response, it will be added by BunkerWeb.

Cookies

STREAM support ❌

When it comes to cookies security, we can use the following flags :

  • HttpOnly : disable any access to the cookie from Javascript using document.cookie
  • SameSite : policy when requests come from third-party websites
  • Secure : only send cookies on HTTPS request

Cookie flags can be overridden with values of your choice by using the COOKIE_FLAGS setting (default : * HttpOnly SameSite=Lax). See here for accepted values.

The Secure flag can be automatically added if HTTPS is used by using the COOKIE_AUTO_SECURE_FLAG setting (default : yes). The value no is not recommended unless you know what you're doing.

Security headers

STREAM support ❌

Various security headers are available and most of them can be set using BunkerWeb settings. Here is the list of headers, the corresponding setting and default value :

Header Setting Default
Content-Security-Policy CONTENT_SECURITY_POLICY object-src 'none'; frame-src 'self'; child-src 'self'; form-action 'self'; frame-ancestors 'self';
Strict-Transport-Security STRICT_TRANSPORT_SECURITY max-age=31536000
Referrer-Policy REFERRER_POLICY strict-origin-when-cross-origin
Permissions-Policy PERMISSIONS_POLICY accelerometer=(), ambient-light-sensor=(), autoplay=(), battery=(), camera=(), cross-origin-isolated=(), display-capture=(), document-domain=(), encrypted-media=(), execution-while-not-rendered=(), execution-while-out-of-viewport=(), fullscreen=(), geolocation=(), gyroscope=(), hid=(), idle-detection=(), magnetometer=(), microphone=(), midi=(), navigation-override=(), payment=(), picture-in-picture=(), publickey-credentials-get=(), screen-wake-lock=(), serial=(), usb=(), web-share=(), xr-spatial-tracking=()
Feature-Policy FEATURE_POLICY accelerometer 'none'; ambient-light-sensor 'none'; autoplay 'none'; battery 'none'; camera 'none'; display-capture 'none'; document-domain 'none'; encrypted-media 'none'; execution-while-not-rendered 'none'; execution-while-out-of-viewport 'none'; fullscreen 'none'; 'none'; geolocation 'none'; gyroscope 'none'; layout-animation 'none'; legacy-image-formats 'none'; magnetometer 'none'; microphone 'none'; midi 'none'; navigation-override 'none'; payment 'none'; picture-in-picture 'none'; publickey-credentials-get 'none'; speaker-selection 'none'; sync-xhr 'none'; unoptimized-images 'none'; unsized-media 'none'; usb 'none'; screen-wake-lock 'none'; web-share 'none'; xr-spatial-tracking 'none';
X-Frame-Options X_FRAME_OPTIONS SAMEORIGIN
X-Content-Type-Options X_CONTENT_TYPE_OPTIONS nosniff
X-XSS-Protection X_XSS_PROTECTION 1; mode=block

CORS

STREAM support ❌

Cross-Origin Resource Sharing lets you manage how your service can be contacted from different origins. Please note that you will have to allow the OPTIONS HTTP method using the ALLOWED_METHODS if you want to enable it (more info here). Here is the list of settings related to CORS :

Setting Default Context Multiple Description
USE_CORS no multisite no Use CORS
CORS_ALLOW_ORIGIN * multisite no Allowed origins to make CORS requests : PCRE regex or *.
CORS_EXPOSE_HEADERS Content-Length,Content-Range multisite no Value of the Access-Control-Expose-Headers header.
CORS_MAX_AGE 86400 multisite no Value of the Access-Control-Max-Age header.
CORS_ALLOW_CREDENTIALS no multisite no Send the Access-Control-Allow-Credentials header.
CORS_ALLOW_METHODS GET, POST, OPTIONS multisite no Value of the Access-Control-Allow-Methods header.
CORS_ALLOW_HEADERS DNT,User-Agent,X-Requested-With,If-Modified-Since,Cache-Control,Content-Type,Range multisite no Value of the Access-Control-Allow-Headers header.
CORS_DENY_REQUEST yes multisite no Deny request and don't send it to backend if Origin is not allowed.

Here is some examples of possible values for CORS_ALLOW_ORIGIN setting :

  • * will allow all origin
  • ^https://www\.example\.com$ will allow https://www.example.com
  • ^https://.+\.example.com$ will allow any origins when domain ends with .example.com
  • ^https://(www\.example1\.com|www\.example2\.com)$ will allow both https://www.example1.com and https://www.example2.com
  • ^https?://www\.example\.com$ will allow both https://www.example.com and http://www.example.com

HTTPS / SSL/TLS

Besides the HTTPS / SSL/TLS configuration, the following settings related to HTTPS / SSL/TLS can be set :

Setting Default Description
REDIRECT_HTTP_TO_HTTPS no When set to yes, will redirect every HTTP request to HTTPS even if BunkerWeb is not configured with HTTPS.
AUTO_REDIRECT_HTTP_TO_HTTPS yes When set to yes, will redirect every HTTP request to HTTPS only if BunkerWeb is configured with HTTPS.
SSL_PROTOCOLS TLSv1.2 TLSv1.3 List of supported SSL/TLS protocols when SSL is enabled.
HTTP2 yes When set to yes, will enable HTTP2 protocol support when using HTTPS.
LISTEN_HTTP yes When set to no, BunkerWeb will not listen for HTTP requests. Useful if you want HTTPS only for example.

Let's Encrypt

STREAM support βœ…

BunkerWeb comes with automatic Let's Encrypt certificate generation and renewal. This is the easiest way of getting HTTPS / SSL/TLS working out of the box for public-facing web applications. Please note that you will need to set up proper DNS A record(s) for each of your domains pointing to your public IP(s) where BunkerWeb is accessible.

Here is the list of related settings :

Setting Default Description
AUTO_LETS_ENCRYPT no When set to yes, HTTPS / SSL/TLS will be enabled with automatic certificate generation and renewal from Let's Encrypt.
EMAIL_LETS_ENCRYPT contact@{FIRST_SERVER} Email to use when generating certificates. Let's Encrypt will send notifications to that email like certificate expiration.
USE_LETS_ENCRYPT_STAGING no When set to yes, the staging server of Let's Encrypt will be used instead of the production one. Useful when doing tests to avoid being "blocked" due to limits.

Full Let's Encrypt automation is fully working with stream mode as long as you open the 80/tcp port from the outside. Please note that you will need to use the LISTEN_STREAM_PORT_SSL setting in order to choose your listening SSL/TLS port.

Custom certificate

STREAM support βœ…

If you want to use your own certificates, here is the list of related settings :

Setting Default Context Multiple Description
USE_CUSTOM_SSL no multisite no Use custom HTTPS / SSL/TLS certificate.
CUSTOM_SSL_CERT multisite no Full path of the certificate or bundle file (must be readable by the scheduler).
CUSTOM_SSL_KEY multisite no Full path of the key file (must be readable by the scheduler).

When USE_CUSTOM_SSL is set to yes, BunkerWeb will check every day if the custom certificate specified in CUSTOM_SSL_CERT is modified and will reload NGINX if that's the case.

When using stream mode, you will need to use the LISTEN_STREAM_PORT_SSL setting in order to choose your listening SSL/TLS port.

Self-signed

STREAM support βœ…

If you want to quickly test HTTPS / SSL/TLS for staging/dev environment you can configure BunkerWeb to generate self-signed certificates, here is the list of related settings :

Setting Default Description
GENERATE_SELF_SIGNED_SSL no When set to yes, HTTPS / SSL/TLS will be enabled with automatic self-signed certificate generation and renewal from Let's Encrypt.
SELF_SIGNED_SSL_EXPIRY 365 Number of days for the certificate expiration (-days value used with openssl).
SELF_SIGNED_SSL_SUBJ /CN=www.example.com/ Certificate subject to use (-subj value used with openssl).

When using stream mode, you will need to use the LISTEN_STREAM_PORT_SSL setting in order to choose your listening SSL/TLS port.

ModSecurity

STREAM support ❌

ModSecurity is integrated and enabled by default alongside the OWASP Core Rule Set within BunkerWeb. Here is the list of related settings :

Setting Default Description
USE_MODSECURITY yes When set to yes, ModSecurity will be enabled.
USE_MODSECURITY_CRS yes When set to yes and USE_MODSECURITY is also set to yes, the OWASP Core Rule Set will be loaded.

We strongly recommend keeping both ModSecurity and the OWASP Core Rule Set enabled. The only downsides are the false positives that may occur. But they can be fixed with some efforts and the CRS team maintains a list of exclusions for common applications (e.g., WordPress, Nextcloud, Drupal, Cpanel, ...).

Tuning ModSecurity and the CRS can be done using custom configurations :

  • modsec-crs : before the OWASP Core Rule Set is loaded
  • modsec : after the OWASP Core Rule Set is loaded (also used if CRS is not loaded)

For example, you can add a custom configuration with type modsec-crs to add CRS exclusions :

SecAction \
 "id:900130,\
  phase:1,\
  nolog,\
  pass,\
  t:none,\
  setvar:tx.crs_exclusions_wordpress=1"

You can also add a custom configuration with type modsec to update loaded CRS rules :

SecRule REQUEST_FILENAME "/wp-admin/admin-ajax.php" "id:1,ctl:ruleRemoveByTag=attack-xss,ctl:ruleRemoveByTag=attack-rce"
SecRule REQUEST_FILENAME "/wp-admin/options.php" "id:2,ctl:ruleRemoveByTag=attack-xss"
SecRule REQUEST_FILENAME "^/wp-json/yoast" "id:3,ctl:ruleRemoveById=930120"

Bad behavior

STREAM support βœ…

When attackers search for and/or exploit vulnerabilities they might generate some "suspicious" HTTP status codes that a "regular" user won’t generate within a period of time. If we detect that kind of behavior we can ban the offending IP address and force the attacker to come up with a new one.

That kind of security measure is implemented and enabled by default in BunkerWeb and is called "Bad behavior". Here is the list of the related settings :

Setting Default Description
USE_BAD_BEHAVIOR yes When set to yes, the Bad behavior feature will be enabled.
BAD_BEHAVIOR_STATUS_CODES 400 401 403 404 405 429 444 List of HTTP status codes considered as "suspicious".
BAD_BEHAVIOR_BAN_TIME 86400 The duration time (in seconds) of a ban when a client reached the threshold.
BAD_BEHAVIOR_THRESHOLD 10 Maximum number of "suspicious" HTTP status codes within the time period.
BAD_BEHAVIOR_COUNT_TIME 60 Period of time during which we count "suspicious" HTTP status codes.

In other words, with the default values, if a client generates more than 10 status codes from the list 400 401 403 404 405 429 444 within 60 seconds their IP address will be banned for 86400 seconds.

When using stream mode, only the 444 status code will count as "bad".

Antibot

STREAM support ❌

Attackers will certainly use automated tools to exploit/find some vulnerabilities in your web applications. One countermeasure is to challenge the users to detect if they look like a bot. If the challenge is solved, we consider the client as "legitimate" and they can access the web application.

That kind of security is implemented but not enabled by default in BunkerWeb and is called "Antibot". Here is the list of supported challenges :

  • Cookie : send a cookie to the client, we expect to get the cookie back on other requests
  • Javascript : force a client to solve a computation challenge using Javascript
  • Captcha : force the client to solve a classical captcha (no external dependencies)
  • hCaptcha : force the client to solve a captcha from hCaptcha
  • reCAPTCHA : force the client to get a minimum score with Google reCAPTCHA
  • Turnstile : enforce rate limiting and access control for APIs and web applications using various mechanisms with Coudflare Turnstile

Here is the list of related settings :

Setting Default Context Multiple Description
USE_ANTIBOT no multisite no Activate antibot feature.
ANTIBOT_URI /challenge multisite no Unused URI that clients will be redirected to to solve the challenge.
ANTIBOT_RECAPTCHA_SCORE 0.7 multisite no Minimum score required for reCAPTCHA challenge.
ANTIBOT_RECAPTCHA_SITEKEY multisite no Sitekey for reCAPTCHA challenge.
ANTIBOT_RECAPTCHA_SECRET multisite no Secret for reCAPTCHA challenge.
ANTIBOT_HCAPTCHA_SITEKEY multisite no Sitekey for hCaptcha challenge.
ANTIBOT_HCAPTCHA_SECRET multisite no Secret for hCaptcha challenge.
ANTIBOT_TURNSTILE_SITEKEY multisite no Sitekey for Turnstile challenge.
ANTIBOT_TURNSTILE_SECRET multisite no Secret for Turnstile challenge.
ANTIBOT_TIME_RESOLVE 60 multisite no Maximum time (in seconds) clients have to resolve the challenge. Once this time has passed, a new challenge will be generated.
ANTIBOT_TIME_VALID 86400 multisite no Maximum validity time of solved challenges. Once this time has passed, clients will need to resolve a new one.

Please note that antibot feature is using a cookie to maintain a session with clients. If you are using BunkerWeb in a clustered environment, you will need to set the SESSIONS_SECRET and SESSIONS_NAME settings to another value than the default one (which is random). You will find more info about sessions here.

Blacklisting, whitelisting and greylisting

The blacklisting security feature is very easy to understand : if a specific criteria is met, the client will be banned. As for the whitelisting, it's the exact opposite : if a specific criteria is met, the client will be allowed and no additional security check will be done. Whereas for the greylisting : if a specific criteria is met, the client will be allowed but additional security checks will be done.

You can configure blacklisting, whitelisting and greylisting at the same time. If that's the case, note that whitelisting is executed before blacklisting and greylisting : even if a criteria is true for all of them, the client will be whitelisted.

Blacklisting

STREAM support ⚠

You can use the following settings to set up blacklisting :

Setting Default Context Multiple Description
USE_BLACKLIST yes multisite no Activate blacklist feature.
BLACKLIST_IP multisite no List of IP/network, separated with spaces, to block.
BLACKLIST_IP_URLS https://www.dan.me.uk/torlist/?exit global no List of URLs, separated with spaces, containing bad IP/network to block.
BLACKLIST_RDNS_GLOBAL yes multisite no Only perform RDNS blacklist checks on global IP addresses.
BLACKLIST_RDNS .shodan.io .censys.io multisite no List of reverse DNS suffixes, separated with spaces, to block.
BLACKLIST_RDNS_URLS global no List of URLs, separated with spaces, containing reverse DNS suffixes to block.
BLACKLIST_ASN multisite no List of ASN numbers, separated with spaces, to block.
BLACKLIST_ASN_URLS global no List of URLs, separated with spaces, containing ASN to block.
BLACKLIST_USER_AGENT multisite no List of User-Agent (PCRE regex), separated with spaces, to block.
BLACKLIST_USER_AGENT_URLS https://raw.githubusercontent.com/mitchellkrogza/nginx-ultimate-bad-bot-blocker/master/_generator_lists/bad-user-agents.list global no List of URLs, separated with spaces, containing bad User-Agent to block.
BLACKLIST_URI multisite no List of URI (PCRE regex), separated with spaces, to block.
BLACKLIST_URI_URLS global no List of URLs, separated with spaces, containing bad URI to block.
BLACKLIST_IGNORE_IP multisite no List of IP/network, separated with spaces, to ignore in the blacklist.
BLACKLIST_IGNORE_IP_URLS global no List of URLs, separated with spaces, containing IP/network to ignore in the blacklist.
BLACKLIST_IGNORE_RDNS multisite no List of reverse DNS suffixes, separated with spaces, to ignore in the blacklist.
BLACKLIST_IGNORE_RDNS_URLS global no List of URLs, separated with spaces, containing reverse DNS suffixes to ignore in the blacklist.
BLACKLIST_IGNORE_ASN multisite no List of ASN numbers, separated with spaces, to ignore in the blacklist.
BLACKLIST_IGNORE_ASN_URLS global no List of URLs, separated with spaces, containing ASN to ignore in the blacklist.
BLACKLIST_IGNORE_USER_AGENT multisite no List of User-Agent (PCRE regex), separated with spaces, to ignore in the blacklist.
BLACKLIST_IGNORE_USER_AGENT_URLS global no List of URLs, separated with spaces, containing User-Agent to ignore in the blacklist.
BLACKLIST_IGNORE_URI multisite no List of URI (PCRE regex), separated with spaces, to ignore in the blacklist.
BLACKLIST_IGNORE_URI_URLS global no List of URLs, separated with spaces, containing URI to ignore in the blacklist.

When using stream mode, only IP, RDNS and ASN checks will be done.

Greylisting

STREAM support ⚠

You can use the following settings to set up greylisting :

Setting Default Context Multiple Description
USE_GREYLIST no multisite no Activate greylist feature.
GREYLIST_IP multisite no List of IP/network, separated with spaces, to put into the greylist.
GREYLIST_IP_URLS global no List of URLs, separated with spaces, containing good IP/network to put into the greylist.
GREYLIST_RDNS_GLOBAL yes multisite no Only perform RDNS greylist checks on global IP addresses.
GREYLIST_RDNS multisite no List of reverse DNS suffixes, separated with spaces, to put into the greylist.
GREYLIST_RDNS_URLS global no List of URLs, separated with spaces, containing reverse DNS suffixes to put into the greylist.
GREYLIST_ASN multisite no List of ASN numbers, separated with spaces, to put into the greylist.
GREYLIST_ASN_URLS global no List of URLs, separated with spaces, containing ASN to put into the greylist.
GREYLIST_USER_AGENT multisite no List of User-Agent (PCRE regex), separated with spaces, to put into the greylist.
GREYLIST_USER_AGENT_URLS global no List of URLs, separated with spaces, containing good User-Agent to put into the greylist.
GREYLIST_URI multisite no List of URI (PCRE regex), separated with spaces, to put into the greylist.
GREYLIST_URI_URLS global no List of URLs, separated with spaces, containing bad URI to put into the greylist.

When using stream mode, only IP, RDNS and ASN checks will be done.

Whitelisting

STREAM support ⚠

You can use the following settings to set up whitelisting :

Setting Default Context Multiple Description
USE_WHITELIST yes multisite no Activate whitelist feature.
WHITELIST_IP 20.191.45.212 40.88.21.235 40.76.173.151 40.76.163.7 20.185.79.47 52.142.26.175 20.185.79.15 52.142.24.149 40.76.162.208 40.76.163.23 40.76.162.191 40.76.162.247 54.208.102.37 107.21.1.8 multisite no List of IP/network, separated with spaces, to put into the whitelist.
WHITELIST_IP_URLS global no List of URLs, separated with spaces, containing good IP/network to whitelist.
WHITELIST_RDNS_GLOBAL yes multisite no Only perform RDNS whitelist checks on global IP addresses.
WHITELIST_RDNS .google.com .googlebot.com .yandex.ru .yandex.net .yandex.com .search.msn.com .baidu.com .baidu.jp .crawl.yahoo.net .fwd.linkedin.com .twitter.com .twttr.com .discord.com multisite no List of reverse DNS suffixes, separated with spaces, to whitelist.
WHITELIST_RDNS_URLS global no List of URLs, separated with spaces, containing reverse DNS suffixes to whitelist.
WHITELIST_ASN 32934 multisite no List of ASN numbers, separated with spaces, to whitelist.
WHITELIST_ASN_URLS global no List of URLs, separated with spaces, containing ASN to whitelist.
WHITELIST_USER_AGENT multisite no List of User-Agent (PCRE regex), separated with spaces, to whitelist.
WHITELIST_USER_AGENT_URLS global no List of URLs, separated with spaces, containing good User-Agent to whitelist.
WHITELIST_URI multisite no List of URI (PCRE regex), separated with spaces, to whitelist.
WHITELIST_URI_URLS global no List of URLs, separated with spaces, containing bad URI to whitelist.

When using stream mode, only IP, RDNS and ASN checks will be done.

Reverse scan

STREAM support βœ…

Reverse scan is a feature designed to detect open ports by establishing TCP connections with clients' IP addresses. Consider adding this feature if you want to detect possible open proxies or connections from servers.

We provide a list of suspicious ports by default but it can be modified to fit your needs. Be mindful, adding too many ports to the list can significantly slow down clients' connections due to the network checks. If a listed port is open, the client's access will be denied.

Please be aware, this feature is new and further improvements will be added soon.

Here is the list of settings related to reverse scan :

Setting Default Description
USE_REVERSE_SCAN no When set to yes, will enable ReverseScan.
REVERSE_SCAN_PORTS 22 80 443 3128 8000 8080 List of suspicious ports to scan.
REVERSE_SCAN_TIMEOUT 500 Specify the maximum timeout (in ms) when scanning a port.

BunkerNet

STREAM support βœ…

BunkerNet is a crowdsourced database of malicious requests shared between all BunkerWeb instances over the world.

If you enable BunkerNet, malicious requests will be sent to a remote server and will be analyzed by our systems. By doing so, we can extract malicious data from everyone's reports and give back the results to each BunkerWeb instances participating into BunkerNet.

At the moment, that feature should be considered in "beta". We only extract malicious IP and we are very strict about how we do it to avoid any "poisoning". We strongly recommend activating it (which is the default) because the more instances participate, the more data we have to improve the algorithm.

The setting used to enable or disable BunkerNet is USE_BUNKERNET (default : yes).

DNSBL

STREAM support βœ…

DNSBL or "DNS BlackList" is an external list of malicious IPs that you query using the DNS protocol. Automatic querying of that kind of blacklist is supported by BunkerWeb. If a remote DNSBL server of your choice says that the IP address of the client is in the blacklist, it will be banned.

Here is the list of settings related to DNSBL :

Setting Default Description
USE_DNSBL yes When set to yes, will enable DNSBL checking.
DNSBL_LIST bl.blocklist.de problems.dnsbl.sorbs.net sbl.spamhaus.org xbl.spamhaus.org List of DNSBL servers to ask.

Limiting

BunkerWeb supports applying a limit policy to :

  • Number of connections per IP
  • Number of requests per IP and URL within a time period

Please note that it should not be considered as an effective solution against DoS or DDoS but rather as an anti-bruteforce measure or rate limit policy for API.

In both cases (connections or requests) if the limit is reached, the client will receive the HTTP status "429 - Too Many Requests".

Connections

STREAM support βœ…

The following settings are related to the Limiting connections feature :

Setting Default Description
USE_LIMIT_CONN yes When set to yes, will limit the maximum number of concurrent connections for a given IP.
LIMIT_CONN_MAX_HTTP1 10 Maximum number of concurrent connections when using HTTP1 protocol.
LIMIT_CONN_MAX_HTTP2 100 Maximum number of concurrent streams when using HTTP2 protocol.
LIMIT_CONN_MAX_STREAM 10 Maximum number of connections per IP when using stream.

Requests

STREAM support ❌

The following settings are related to the Limiting requests feature :

Setting Default Context Multiple Description
USE_LIMIT_REQ yes multisite no Activate limit requests feature.
LIMIT_REQ_URL / multisite yes URL (PCRE regex) where the limit request will be applied or special value / for all requests.
LIMIT_REQ_RATE 2r/s multisite yes Rate to apply to the URL (s for second, m for minute, h for hour and d for day).
USE_LIMIT_CONN yes multisite no Activate limit connections feature.
LIMIT_CONN_MAX_HTTP1 10 multisite no Maximum number of connections per IP when using HTTP/1.X protocol.
LIMIT_CONN_MAX_HTTP2 100 multisite no Maximum number of streams per IP when using HTTP/2 protocol.
LIMIT_CONN_MAX_STREAM 10 multisite no Maximum number of connections per IP when using stream.

Please note that you can add different rates for different URLs by adding a number as a suffix to the settings for example : LIMIT_REQ_URL_1=^/url1$, LIMIT_REQ_RATE_1=5r/d, LIMIT_REQ_URL_2=^/url2/subdir/.*$, LIMIT_REQ_RATE_2=1r/m, ...

Another important thing to note is that LIMIT_REQ_URL values are PCRE regex.

Country

STREAM support βœ…

The country security feature allows you to apply policy based on the country of the IP address of clients :

  • Deny any access if the country is in a blacklist
  • Only allow access if the country is in a whitelist (other security checks will still be executed)

Here is the list of related settings :

Setting Default Context Multiple Description
BLACKLIST_COUNTRY multisite no Deny access if the country of the client is in the list (ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 format separated with spaces).
WHITELIST_COUNTRY multisite no Deny access if the country of the client is not in the list (ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 format separated with spaces).

Using both country blacklist and whitelist at the same time makes no sense. If you do, please note that only the whitelist will be executed.

Authentication

Auth basic

STREAM support ❌

You can quickly protect sensitive resources like the admin area for example, by requiring HTTP basic authentication. Here is the list of related settings :

Setting Default Description
USE_AUTH_BASIC no When set to yes HTTP auth basic will be enabled.
AUTH_BASIC_LOCATION sitewide Location (URL) of the sensitive resource. Use special value sitewide to enable everywhere.
AUTH_BASIC_USER changeme The username required.
AUTH_BASIC_PASSWORD changeme The password required.
AUTH_BASIC_TEXT Restricted area Text to display in the auth prompt.

Auth request

You can deploy complex authentication (e.g. SSO), by using the auth request settings (see here for more information on the feature). Please note that you will find Authelia and Authentik examples in the repository.

Auth request settings are related to reverse proxy rules.

Setting Default Context Multiple Description
REVERSE_PROXY_AUTH_REQUEST multisite yes Enable authentication using an external provider (value of auth_request directive).
REVERSE_PROXY_AUTH_REQUEST_SIGNIN_URL multisite yes Redirect clients to sign-in URL when using REVERSE_PROXY_AUTH_REQUEST (used when auth_request call returned 401).
REVERSE_PROXY_AUTH_REQUEST_SET multisite yes List of variables to set from the authentication provider, separated with ; (values of auth_request_set directives).